Bladder sensations or control may change after surgery or radiotherapy. Some people find they need to pass urine more often, or feel that they need to go in a hurry. Others may lose a few drops when they cough, sneeze, strain or lift.

For ways to manage involuntary or accidental loss of urine (urinary incontinence), contact the continence nurse or physiotherapist at your hospital. You can also contact the Continence Foundation of Australia ( on 1800 330 066.

After radiotherapy, the blood vessels in the bowel and bladder can become more fragile. This can cause blood to appear in your urine or bowel movements, even months or years after treatment. Let your doctor know so the appropriate treatment can be given.