Radiation therapy (also known as radiotherapy) uses radiation to destroy cancer cells. Although radiation also damages normal cells, cancer cells are especially sensitive to its effects. This makes radiation therapy an effective treatment for many cancer types.
Radiation therapy can be used:
- before surgery to shrink the tumour and make it easier to remove
- after surgery to destroy any remaining cancer cells
- as the main treatment, if surgery is not a good option
- in combination with surgery, chemotherapy or stem cell transplant[link to stem cell transplant]
- to relieve symptoms of the tumour.
Radiation therapy involves a total dose of radiation, which is divided into smaller doses or fractions. Typically, one fraction is given each day over several days until the total dose is reached.
High doses of radiation can be aimed directly at the tumour, depending on where the tumour is and whether it has spread. This limits the amount of radiation that reaches healthy areas of the body.
Types of radiation therapy
There are two main types of radiation therapy – external and internal.
The type of radiation therapy recommended to you will depend on the type and location of your cancer, your general health and other treatments you might have had.
External radiation therapy
External radiation therapy (called external beam radiation) uses a machine that beams radiation onto the tumour. The area that receives radiation is therefore very precise, and this minimises the amount of radiation on surrounding healthy areas.
External radiation therapy is usually given 5 times per week (with a 2-day rest), and can continue for several weeks. Each exposure will take a few minutes.
The treatment itself is painless. However, you will need to keep very still during the procedure, and this can feel uncomfortable. The treatment team will make every effort to ensure that you are as comfortable as possible. External radiation therapy does not make you radioactive.
Internal radiation therapy
Radiation therapy that is given internally is called brachytherapy. It involves giving radiation via a needle, catheter or another specialised device. The device stays in place from a few minutes to a few days. Depending on the treatment and the dose of radiation, you may need to stay in hospital or make a daily visit for treatment.
You may give off a small amount of radiation for a short time after internal radiation therapy. If this will only be for a few minutes, you will stay in a separate room for that time to prevent others being exposed to the radiation. If the radioactivity will last for longer, and you are allowed to leave the hospital, you will need to take some safety precautions. Certain people (e.g. pregnant women, children, adolescents) should not get too close to you until the radiation weakens. Your doctors will discuss this with you in more detail.
Side effects of radiation therapy
The 2 most common side effects of radiation therapy are:
- skin problems, especially at the radiation site, such as dryness, itchiness, peeling and blistering (similar to sunburn)
- fatigue (tiredness).
Other potential side effects will depend on where radiation therapy is given in the body, and may include:
- head or neck: dental problems, mouth problems (dryness, difficulty swallowing) or jaw stiffness
- chest: stiffness in the area and some lung inflammation
- stomach and belly: nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea
- pelvis: diarrhoea, urination problems and reproductive problems. Having radiotherapy around the reproductive organs can affect fertility temporarily or permanently. You should discuss this with your doctor.
For some people, radiation therapy causes few or no side effects. For others, the side effects are more severe. Side effects often begin during the second or third week of treatment. While most can be managed and will gradually disappear once treatment is finished, some may last for several weeks after treatment.
If you feel unwell or have any unexpected side effects while you are having treatment, you should contact your doctor.
For more information about radiation and its side affects you should talk to your doctor or visit Treatment side effects.