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Information and resources


For more information and cancer and cancer treatment:

For more information on managing fatigue, fertility issues, early menopause, hair loss and lymphoedema, go to the Gynaecological Cancer Support website:

If you are experiencing a sexual problem because of cancer treatment, you may find it helpful to discuss it with your doctor, or you may feel more comfortable talking to a hospital counsellor, social worker or psychologist. The Cancer Council Helpline on 13 11 20 can also put you in touch with a counsellor or a sex therapist and can provide a copy of the booklets Sexuality for Women with Cancer (Cancer Council New South Wales), Sexuality and Cancer (Cancer Council Victoria) and Emotions and Cancer.

For more information about fertility:

  • The United Kingdom’s MacMillan Cancer Support ( has more about cancer and fertility in women.
  • The American Society for Reproductive Medicine ( has a one-page factsheet for patients on Cancer and Fertility Preservation.
  • Fertile Hope ( is a United States non-profit organisation with online calculators to assess fertility risk and fertility-sparing options for people with cancer.
  • Access ( is an Australian non-profit organisation that provides infertility support, information and advocacy.

(When reading international materials, please note that some of the information may not apply to Australian patients.)

For information on advanced cancer, the Cancer Council Helpline on 13 11 20 can provide a copy of the booklet, Living with Advanced Cancer.


We thank the following organisations and individuals for allowing their information to be used in this material:

  • Cancer Council New South Wales
  • National Cancer Institute (United States)
  • Karen Carey, Patient First, Western Australian Council for Safety and Quality in Health Care
  • Professor Ian Hammond, WA Gynaecologic Cancer Service, Perth, Western Australia
  • Professor Roger Hart, School of Women’s and Infants’ Health, University of Western Australia, King Edward Memorial Hospital and Medical Director, Fertility Specialists of Western Australia.

Statistics for the number of Australian women with vulval cancer are from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and Australasian Association of Cancer Registries, 2008, Cancer in Australia: an overview, 2008, Cancer series no. 46, Cat. no. CAN 42, Canberra: AIHW.

Information was also drawn from:

  • RP de Bie et al, 2009. Patients with usual vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia-related vulvar cancer have an increased risk of cervical abnormalities. Br J Cancer 101(1):27–31.
  • LJ Conley et al, 2002. HIV-1 infection and risk of vulvovaginal and perianal condylomata acuminata and intraepithelial neoplasia: a prospective cohort study. The Lancet 359:108–13.
  • DS Chi, 1999. The diagnosis and management of vulvar cancer. Prim Care Update Ob/Gyns 6:24–32.
  • B Lambert and Y Lepage, 1988. Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: evaluation and control. Journal of Gynecologic Surgery 4(1):15–21. doi:10.1089/gyn.1988.4.15.
  • M Sideri et al, 2005. Squamous vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia: 2004 modified terminology, ISSVD Vulvar Oncology Subcommittee. J Reprod Med 50:807–10.
  • M van Seters et al, 2008. Treatment of vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia with topical imiquimod. New England Journal of Medicine 358:1465–1473.
  • DermNet NZ:
  • University of Iowa: