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Information and resources


For more information and cancer and cancer treatment:

For more information on managing fatigue, fertility issues, early menopause, hair loss and lymphoedema, go to the Gynaecological Cancer Support website:

If you are experiencing a sexual problem because of cancer treatment, you may find it helpful to discuss it with your doctor, or you may feel more comfortable talking to a hospital counsellor, social worker or psychologist. The Cancer Council Helpline on 13 11 20 can also put you in touch with a counsellor or a sex therapist and can provide a copy of the booklets Sexuality for Women with Cancer (Cancer Council New South Wales), Sexuality and Cancer (Cancer Council Victoria) and Emotions and Cancer.

For more information about fertility:

  • The United Kingdom's MacMillan Cancer Support ( has more about cancer and fertility in women.
  • The American Society for Reproductive Medicine ( has a one-page factsheet for patients on Cancer and Fertility Preservation.
  • Fertile Hope ( is a United States non-profit organisation with online calculators to assess fertility risk and fertility-sparing options for people with cancer.
  • Access ( is an Australian non-profit organisation that provides infertility support, information and advocacy.

(When reading international materials, please note that some of the information may not apply to Australian patients.)

For information on advanced cancer, the Cancer Council Helpline on 13 11 20 can provide a copy of the booklet, Living with Advanced Cancer.


We thank the following organisations and individuals for allowing their information to be used in this material:

  • Cancer Council New South Wales
  • National Cancer Institute (USA)
  • Karen Carey, Patient First, Western Australian Council for Safety and Quality in Health Care
  • Professor Ian Hammond, WA Gynaecologic Cancer Service, Perth, Western Australia
  • Professor Roger Hart, School of Women’s and Infants’ Health, University of Western Australia, King Edward Memorial Hospital and Medical Director, Fertility Specialists of Western Australia.

Statistics for the number of Australian women with vaginal cancer are from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and Australasian Association of Cancer Registries, 2008, Cancer in Australia: an overview, 2008, Cancer series no. 46, Cat. no. CAN 42, Canberra: AIHW.

Information was also drawn from:

  • H De Vuyst et al, 2009. Prevalence and type distribution of human papillomavirus in carcinoma and intraepithelial neoplasia of the vulva, vagina and anus: a meta-analysis. Int J Cancer 124(7):1626–36.
  • E Diakomanolis et al, 2002. Vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia: report of 102 cases. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 23(5):457–9.
  • JA Dodge et al, 2001. Clinical features and risk of recurrence among patients with vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia. Gynecol Oncol 83(2):363–9.
  • U Indraccolo et al, 2008. Does vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia have the same evolution as cervical intraepithelial neoplasia? Eur J Gynaecol Oncol 29(4):371–3.
  • H Kent, 2009. Practice recommendations vaginal neoplasia. American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology:
  • S Schockaert et al, 2008. Incidence of vaginal intraepithelial neoplasia after hysterectomy for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a retrospective study. AJOG 199:113.e1–113.e5.